The project is funded by National Science Foundation of China, with the aim to understand the attitudes of Chinese scientific researchers to the measures to be taken by NSFC to promote the development of female scientists. The project team implemented two electronic surveys in July, 2010. One targeted to NSFC applicants in the year 2009, which collected more than 4600 cases from 7600 samples. The other one targeted to scientific researchers in NSFC affiliated institutions, including both applicants and non-applicants. This survey resulted in more than 2500 cases out of 7600 samples. Both surveys were implemented with similar questionnaires, including questions on researcher’s education and research background, application process, attitudes to policies, etc.