In the spring of 2006, the Outline of the National Program for Long- and Medium-Term Science and Technology Development (2006-2020) was issued on the first National Conference on Science and Technology in the new century. After the conference, the central government had been highlighted that “to improve the independent innovation” and “to construct an innovative country” are the core strategies of China’s development and the key to enhancing national strengths. To meet the new requirements on S & T work of Chinese government in the new era, and to improve the research on S & T macro development strategies and policies, MOST made a proposal to State Commission Office for Public Sector Reform, and suggested to transform NRCSTD into CASTED. In December 28, 2007, CASTED was officially established, with Mr. Wan Gang as its President, who is also Minister of Science and Technology and Vice-Chairman of National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference.

In October 1982, a moment of reform, opening-up and economic development in China, NRCSTD, the predecessor of CASTED, was set up with the approval of the State Council. Mr. Deng Xiaoping, the master architect of China’s reform and opening-up, personally inscribed the name - National Research Center for Science and Technology for Development.

NRCSTD was a comprehensive research institute directly under MOST, mainly conducting research on national S & T development strategies, policies, mechanism, management, foresight, assessment, and playing the role of S & T in facilitating social and economic development. It provided consulting services to the process of macro decision-making for national S & T, economical and social development.

Since 1982, NRCSTD had been continuously participated in important policy studies and the process of decision-making for national S & T reform and development during different periods. It also organized or participated in many research on national key programs and on regional development strategies or plans. With much active consulting and pioneering work, it boosted the systematic reform and the development of China’s S & T, which strongly supported national macro decision-making. All that achievements made it an outstanding research institute with international and domestic reputation.

From NRCSTD to CASTED, a top-level think tank with international perspectives is embarking on a new journey, continuously devoting itself to China’s S & T development.